Daphnia Activity Monitoring
For several years, video tracking systems have been developed to analyze alterations in the swimming behavior
of daphnia to provide early signals of chemical stress. However, these systems have limited testing abilities that do not
allow for a systematic analysis of the robustness of behavioral endpoints. With recent advances in behavior tracking
technology, we were able to develop a new behavioral analysis multi-cell exposure system named “Multi-DaphTrack”
with a high-throughput testing capacity for assessing the behavioral response of Daphnia magna. The insecticide
esfenvalerate was chosen as chemical model and tested on daphnid neonates at several concentrations for 48 h to
(i) evaluate the performance of this new system and (ii) compare the sensitivity of our new multi-cell system with the
standard immobilization assay and the Bbe®
Daphnia Toximeter. Overall, the results demonstrated that our new “MultiDaphTrack” system can detect significant behavioral effects of esfenvalerate at concentrations as low as 0.14 µg/L from
a minimum of 1 h of exposure. Similar rapid behavioral effect trends were observed with the Bbe®
The behavior proved to be more sensitive than the standard immobilization endpoint. Significant behavioral changes
were observed at the esfenvalerate concentrations that occur in contaminated rivers from agricultural areas in Europe
and North America.
- • Basic Red 51 and Erythrostominone are acutely toxic to Daphnia magna.
- • Both dyes induce deleterious consequences at population level for daphnids.
- • Basic Red 51 increases the respiration rate of daphnids.
- • Erythrostominone toxicity is 100-fold lower in comparison to Basic Red 51.
- • After photodegradation, Erythrostominone loses its toxic potential to D. magna.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
- • Alterations of phase II metabolism were enhanced after ciprofloxacin (CPX) exposure.
- • Ciprofloxacin may lead to a neurotoxic effect on Dapnhia magna.
- • Fluoroquinolones may cause oxidative stress, promoting cellular damage.
- • Swimming behaviour may be compromised by CPX.
- • CPX altered energy allocation by parental organisms, producing smaller neonates.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Phytoremediation has been proposed as a potential biotechnological strategy to remediate effluents before their release into the environment. The use of common aquatic plant species, such as macrophytes (e.g., Lemna spp.) as a cleanup solution has been proposed decades ago. However, the effectiveness of such processes must be assessed by analyzing the toxicity of resulting effluents, for the monitoring of wastewater quality. To attain this purpose, this work intended to quantify the efficacy of a Lemna-based wastewater phytoremediation process, by analyzing toxicological effects of domestic and textile effluents. The toxic effects were measured in Lemna minor (same organisms used in the phytoremediation process, by quantifying toxicological endpoints such as root length, pigment content, and catalase activity) and by quantifying individual parameters of Daphnia magna (immobilization, reproduction, and behavior analysis). Phytoremediation process resulted in a decrease of chemical oxygen demand in both effluents and in an increase in root length of exposed plants. Moreover, textile effluent decreased pigments content and increased catalase activity, while domestic effluent increased the anthocyanin content of exposed plants. D. magna acute tests allowed calculating a EC50 and Toxic Units interval of 53.82–66.89%/1.85–1.49, respectively, to raw textile effluent; however, it was not possible to calculate these parameters for raw and treated domestic effluent (RDE and TDE). Therefore, in general, the acute toxicity of effluent toward D. magna was null for RDE, and mild for the treated textile effluent (TTE), probably due to the effect of phytoremediation. Exposure to textile effluents (raw and treated) increased the total number of neonates of D. magna and, in general, both textile effluents decreased D. magna distance swim. Moreover, although both effluents were capable of causing morphological and physiological/biochemical alterations in L. minor plants, organisms of this species were able to survive in the presence of both effluents and to remediate them.
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