The oxidative stress responses caused by phthalate acid esters increases mRNA abundance of base excision repair (BER) genes in vivo and in vitro

Highlights

• PAEs effects the development of zebrafish embryos.
• PAEs decreases cell viability in HEK293T cells.
• PAEs increases the production of ROS and decreases SOD activity in vivo and in vitro.
• PAEs increases pro-apoptotic gene expression and decreases anti-apoptotic gene expression.
• BER pathway were activated in response to PAEs exposure (with the exceptions of larvae at 50 μM MEHP) in vivo and vitro.

Abstract

The base excision repair (BER) pathway is an important defense response to oxidative DNA damage. It is known that exposures to phthalate esters (PAEs), including Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), cause reactive oxygen species-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress. Here, we determined the mRNA levels of BER pathway-related genes (ogg1, nthl1, apex1, parp1, xrcc1, lig3, ung, pcna, polb, pold, fen1, and lig1), pro-apoptotic gene (bax), and apoptotic suppressor gene (bcl2) in different PAEs-exposed zebrafish larvae and HEK293T cells. Further investigations were performed to examine reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, developmental toxicity, and cell viability after PAEs exposure in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that PAEs exposure can induce developmental abnormalities in zebrafish larvae, and inhibit cell viability in HEK293T cells. Additionally, we found that PAEs exposure results in the accumulation of ROS and the inhibition of SOD activation in vivo and in vitro. Notably, the mRNA levels of BER pathway-related genes (OGG1, NTHL1, APEX1, XRCC1, UNG, POLB, POLD, FEN1) were significantly upregulated after DBP or MEHP exposure, whereas the mRNA levels of NTHL1, UNG, POLB, POLD, and FEN1 were significantly altered in DEHP-treated HEK293T cells. In zebrafish, the mRNA levels of ogg1, pcna, fen1 and lig1 genes were increased after DBP or DEHP exposure, whereas the mRNA levels of nthl1, apex1, parp1, lig3, pcna and polb were decreased after MEHP exposure, respectively. Thus, our findings indicated that PAEs exposure can induce developmental toxicity, cytotoxicity, and oxidative stress, as well as activate BER pathway in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that BER pathway might play critical roles in PAEs-induced oxidative stress through repairing oxidative DNA damage.

Link to the publication :

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147651320313622