Knockdown of chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase-1, but not of dermatan-4-sulfotransferase-1, accelerates regeneration of zebrafish after spinal cord injury

Glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) are long chains of repeating disaccharide units, covalently linked to core proteins to form proteoglycans. Proteoglycans can be cell membrane–bound or are part of the extracellular matrix. They are important in a wide range of biologic processes, including development, synaptic plasticity, and regeneration after injury, as well as modulation of growth factor signaling, cell migration, survival, and proliferation. Synthesis of CS and DS in the Golgi apparatus is mediated by sulfotransferases that modify sugar chains through transfer of sulfate groups to specific positions on the sugar moieties. To clarify the functions of CS and DS during nervous system regeneration, we studied the effect of chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase-1/carbohydrate sulfotransferase-11 (C4ST-1/Chst-11) and dermatan 4-O-sulfotransferase-1/Chst-14 (D4ST-1/Chst-14) down-regulation on spinal cord regeneration in larval and adult zebrafish. In our study, knockdown of C4ST1/Chst-11 accelerated regeneration after spinal cord injury in larval and adult zebrafish and knockdown of D4ST1/Chst-14 did not alter regenerative capacity. From these and previous observations, we drew the conclusion that different CS and DS expression patterns can be growth permitting, growth inhibiting, or neutral for regrowing or sprouting axons, depending on the tissue environment of a particular animal species.—Sahu, S., Li, R., Loers, G., Schachner, M. Knockdown of chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase-1, but not of dermatan-4-sulfotransferase-1, accelerates regeneration of zebrafish after spinal cord injury.

Link to the publication :

https://www.fasebj.org/doi/abs/10.1096/fj.201800852RR