An introduction to high-throughput behavioral screening


Effects of exposure to the UV-filter 4-MBC on Solea senegalensis during their metamorphosis

Environmental Science and Pollution Research


Effects of exposure to the UV-filter 4-MBC during Solea senegalensis metamorphosis


Many personal care products integrate UV-filters, such as 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), a compound frequently detected in aquatic habitats, including coastal areas. However, the potential effects of 4-MBC to saltwater species have been poorly studied. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to study the effects of 4-MBC exposure on Solea senegalensis during metamorphosis, a sensitive life stage of this flatfish. To achieve this, fish were exposed to 4-MBC (0.2–2.0 mg L-1) for 48 h at the beginning of metamorphosis (13 days after hatching, dah). After this period, the fish were transferred to a clean medium. They were fed and maintained until more than 80% of individuals in the control group completed the metamorphosis (24 dah). Mortality, malformations, and metamorphic progression were studied daily. Growth, behavior, and biochemical markers of neurotransmission (acetylcholinesterase, AChE), oxidative stress (catalase, CAT; lipid peroxidation, LPO), detoxification (glutathione S-transferase, GST), and anaerobic metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) were also determined at the end of the experiment. An acceleration of metamorphosis progression was observed during and 2 days after the 4-MBC exposure in all concentrations tested. In addition, reduced length, inhibition of CAT activity, and induction of oxidative damage were observed (lowest observed effect concentration, LOEC = 0.928 mg L−1 4-MBC for length, CAT, and LPO). Short-term exposure to 4-MBC at the onset of metamorphosis affected S. senegalensis at several levels of organization, even after 9 days in a clean medium, including growth and metamorphic progression, suggesting possible long-term adverse effects in this species.


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