Nutrients and salinity influence Prymnesium parvum (UTEX LB 2797) elicited sublethal toxicity in Pimephales promelas and Danio rerio

The magnitude, frequency, and duration of harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasing worldwide, primarily due to climate change and anthropogenic activities. Prymnesium parvum is a euryhaline and eurythermal HAB forming species that has expanded throughout North America, resulting in massive fish kills. Previous aquatic ecology and toxicology efforts supported an understanding of conditions resulting in P. parvum HABs and fish kills; however, the primary endpoint selected for these studies was acute mortality. Whether adverse sublethal responses to P. parvum occur in fish are largely unknown. To begin to address this question, molecular and biochemical oxidative stress (OS) biomarker responses and photomotor behavioral alterations were investigated in two common fish models, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). Varying nutrient and salinity conditions influenced P. parvum related OS biomarkers and fish behavioral responses in zebrafish and fathead minnows, which were heightened by nonoptimal conditions for P. parvum growth. Such sublethal observations present important considerations for future aquatic assessments and management of P. parvum HABs.!