Sex-dependent locomotion and physiological responses shape the insecticidal susceptibility of parasitoid wasps

Published: 01-01-2015 In Publication

主题: VideoTrack

abstract The adaptive fitness of insect species can be shaped by how males and females respond, both physiologically and behaviorally, to environmental challenges, such as pesticide exposure. In parasitoid wasps, most toxicological investigations focus only on female responses (e.g., survival and especially parasitism abilities), leaving the male contributions to adaptive fitness (survival, locomotion, mate search) poorly investigated. Here, we evaluated the toxicity of the spinosyn insecticide spinosad against the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, and we used the parasitoid wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) to evaluate whether sex-linked locomotory and physiological responses would influence the susceptibility of these organisms to spinosad. Our results revealed that D. longicaudata males were significantly more susceptible (median lethal time (LT50) ¼ 24 h) to spinosad than D. longicaudata females (LT50 ¼ 120 h), which may reflect the differences in their locomotory and physiological (e.g., respiratory) responses to mitigate insecticide exposure. Compared to D. longicaudata females, male wasps were lighter (P < 0.001), walked for longer distances (P < 0.001) and periods (P < 0.001), and exhibited higher sensilla densities in their tarsi (P ¼ 0.008), which may facilitate their intoxication with the insecticide. These findings indicate that male parasitoids should not be exempt from insecticide selectivity tests, as these organisms can be significantly more affected by such environmental challenges than their female conspecifics. 


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